Macao’s total population is estimated at around 648,400. Over 90% of Macao residents are ethnic Chinese. The remaining includes Portuguese, Southeast Asian and other nationalities.
The Macao Special Administrative Region has an area of 30.5 km2, comprised of the Macao Peninsula (9.3 km2 and connected to Mainland China), Taipa (7.6 km2) and Coloane (7.6 km2) and the reclaimed area COTAI (6.0 km2). Three bridges connect Macao to Taipa (one of them is 2.5 km long, the other one is 4.5 km long and the third one is 2.2 km long).
Besides the Border Gate (Portas do Cerco) - the visitor can access Mainland China through the COTAI Frontier Post. Immigration and Customs is located in the reclaimed area between Taipa and Coloane.
Macao is eight hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.
Macao is situated in a subtropical zone, with the Asian continent to the north and a wide tropical sea to the south. In winter, Macao experiences northerly winds, cold and dry weather and low rainfall, due to a cold continental high-pressure system at medium and high latitudes. In summer, Macao is mainly subject to south-westerly winds, hot and wet weather and heavy rainfall, due to the influence of oceanic tropical weather systems. The reverse of wind directions in winter and summer, together with minimal temperature variations during the day, give Macao a marine monsoon climate.
Macao has an average annual temperature of 22.6 °C. The coolest month is January, when it averages 15.1 °C. Most years, Macao has a short cold weather period when temperatures fall below 5 °C. The average monthly temperature exceeds 22 °C during seven months of the year, indicating that Macao has a short winter but a long summer.
Macao is frequently hit by typhoons. The typhoon season starts in May and ends in September, with July and August as its peak period.
Chinese and Portuguese are the official languages, Cantonese being most widely spoken. The official languages are used in government departments in all official documents and communications. English is generally used in trade, tourism and commerce.
Macao became a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China on 20 December 1999. Its constitutional document, the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region (MSAR), also came into force on the same day.
The Basic Law stipulates the system to be practiced in Macao, and lays down the political and administrative framework of the MSAR for 50 years from 1999.
The systems and policies of the MSAR – including its social and economic systems; safeguards for the fundamental rights and freedoms of its residents; the executive, legislature and judiciary; and Government policies – are all based on the provisions of the Basic Law.
Under the Basic Law, the MSAR is entitled to a high degree of autonomy in all areas except defense and foreign affairs. It enjoys executive autonomy, legislative autonomy, an independent judiciary and the right to final adjudication. The MSAR maintains the status of free port and independent tariff region. It also maintains the free flow of capital and the freedom of operations of financial institutions. It may, under the name “Macao, China”, independently maintain, develop relations with and sign agreements with various countries, regions and international organizations in fields such as the economy, trade, finance, transportation, communications, tourism, culture and sports.
The Government of the Macao Special Administrative Region is the executive authority of the MSAR. The Chief Executive is the head of the Government, and general secretariats, directorates of services, departments and divisions are established in the MSAR Government.
Though a small economy, Macao pursues an open economic policy. It boasts one of the lowest tax regimes in the Asia Pacific region and sound financial stability. As a free port and a separate tariff zone, which has no foreign exchange controls, Macao is an active player in the regional economy and a vital link between the mainland Chinese and global markets.
Since the founding of the Macao Special Administrative Region, the economy has maintained rapid growth thanks to the development of the gaming industry. In 2016 Macao’s economy continued to undergo adjustment and consolidation. In the year its GDP stood at358.2 billion patacas, a decrease of 2.1 percent in real terms. The economic contraction was smaller compared with the previous year, with a negative growth rate of 9.7 percent in the first half of 2016 and a positive growth rate of 5.7 percent in the latter half of the year. The job market remained good and the financial system remained stable.
According to preliminary data from the Monetary Authority of Macao, the city’s fiscal reserves were 438.7 billion patacas as of the end of 2016, a year-on-year increase of 27 percent, while its foreign reserves stood at 155.7 billion patacas.
As of the first quarter of 2017, Macao’s fiscal reserves and foreign reserves were estimated to be 472.36 billion and 155.1 billion patacas, respectively.
According to the 2017 Index of Economic Freedom released by the US-based Heritage Foundation, Macao’s ranking moved up from the 9th place to the 8th place in the Asia Pacific region, and was ranked 32ndamong 180global economies. It has been in the ranks of the “mostly free” economies for nine consecutive years.
The MSAR Government continued to leverage on Macao’s unique advantage in 2016 to press ahead with regional cooperation. Macao’s cooperation framework with three major economic circles, namely the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolis, has been completed, thereby raising Macao’s overall competitiveness. The Government also laid down and implemented the Five-Year Development Plan of the Macao Special Administrative Region (2016-2020) for the first time, to tie in with the nation’s 13th five-year plan, participate in and support the “Belt and Road” initiative as well as develop a business cooperation platform between China and Portuguese-speaking countries.
As a non-sovereign special administrative region, Macao enjoys wide-ranging and close relationships with most countries and regions around the world. According to the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region, Macao may develop bilateral relations with other countries or regions, and participate in international organisations and multinational treaties on its own under the name ‘Macao, China’ in the areas of commerce, trade, finance, aviation, communication, tourism, culture, technology and sport.
Labor and Employment
In 2016 despite the economic adjustment, the job market was unaffected, with a low unemployment rate of 1.9 percent.
The median monthly salary of the employed population was 15,000 patacas. The median monthly salary of local workers stood at 18,000 patacas, the same as that in 2015. As at the end of December 2016, the number of foreign employees imported to ease local labour shortage stood at 177,638, a decrease of2.2percent compared with the figure in 2015.
The unemployment level during the first quarter of 2017 was 2.0 percent and underemployment rate was 0.5percent. The labour participation rate was 71 percent; 76.2 percent was male and 66.5 percent was female. The total labour force was 387,500; of which 7,900 was unemployed. The total employed population was 379,500.
Historic City of Macao
Comprising over 20 ancient monuments and urban squares interwoven in the heart of the city, the historic district is collectively known as “The Historic Centre of Macao” and inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2005. It stands today as a living testimony to the integration and co-existence of eastern and western cultures over a unique chapter in history. Leisurely explore the Historic Centre of Macao, one will discover various magnificent heritages and unveil their wonderful stories!
For more information on each of the monuments, please browse Macao Government Tourism Office website.
Intangible Cultural Heritage
Macao, a city known for its Chinese and Western cultural coexistence and have been developing in this place for more than four centuries, nurturing the unique cultural landscape of Macao and its own precious intangible cultural heritage.
‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ is refer to the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge and skills as well as the related instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces that are considered component parts of cultural heritage by communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals. Intangible cultural heritage, which includes oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts.
Currently Macao features 15 items of intangible cultural heritage, including namely Yueju Opera (Cantonese Opera), Herbal Tea Brewing, Woodwork – Religious Figure Carving, Taoist Ritual Music, Cantonese Naamyam (Narrative Songs), Festival of the Drunken Dragon, Belief and Customs of A-Ma, Belief and Customs of Na Tcha, Macanese Gastronomy, Patuá Theatre, Belief and Customs of Tou Tei, Belief and Customs of Chu Tai Sin, the Craft of Bamboo Scaffolding, Procession of the Passion of Our Lord the God Jesus and the Procession of Our Lady of Fatima.
For more information, please visit the Macao Cultural Heritage website.
澳門全年氣候溫和，平均氣溫約23ºC (73ºF)，溫差變化在20ºC (68ºF)和26ºC (79ºF)之間；濕度較高，年均達79%；全年平均降雨量約2,058毫米。每年的五月至九月是澳門的雨季，當氣象局預測在未來兩小時內，澳門的降雨量將達到約50毫米時，會發出暴雨警告信號。
就業人口每月工作收入中位數錄得15,000澳門元，本地居民為18,000元，維持 2015年水平。而為補充本地緊絀的人力資源供應，截至 2016年12月底，輸入的外地僱員數目為 177,638人，較201 5年同期減少 2.2 %。